J. Scott Marcus: Publications

Note that my published work does not necessarily represent the views of any current or former employer or client.

J. Scott Marcus (2016), "New network neutrality rules in Europe: Comparisons to those in the U.S.", Colorado Technology Law Journal, volume 14.2102, forthcoming.

Catherine Maton, Lovan Pushparatnam, J. Scott Marcus et al. (2016), "Study on migration of railway radio communication system from GSM-R to other solutions", on behalf of the European Railway Agency (ERA), forthcoming.

J. Scott Marcus and Georgios Petropoulos (2016), "Challenging prospects for roam like at home", Bruegel.

J. Scott Marcus and Georgios Petropoulos (2016), "e-commerce in Europe: Parcel delivery prices in a Digital Single Market", Bruegel.

J. Scott Marcus, Christin Gries, Christian Wernick, and Imme Philbeck (2016), "Developments in international mobile roaming with a special focus on structural solutions", WIK discussion paper 403 (full text only in German), at http://www.wik.org/index.php?id=diskussionsbeitraegedetails&L=1&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=93&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=1789&cHash=a79eb04afeb5ec70f699dea624c38432.

Ilsa Godlovitch, J. Scott Marcus, Bas Kotterink, Pieter Nooren et al. (2015), “Over-the-Top (OTT) players: Market dynamics and policy challenges”, study for the IMCO Committee of the European Parliament, at http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2015/569979/IPOL_STU(2015)569979_EN.pdf.

René C.G. Arnold, J. Scott Marcus, Martin Waldburger, Dr. Anna Schneider, Bastian Morasch, and Frieder Schmid (2015), "All But Neutral: Citizen Responses to the European Commission’s Public Consultation on Network Neutrality", in Belli, L. & Filippi, Primavera De (Eds.): Net Neutrality Compendium - Human Rights, Free Competition and the Future of the Internet.

J. Scott Marcus and Richard Shockey (2015), "Review of Resource Public Key Infrastructure (RPKI) to verify ownership and authenticity of telephone caller ID over Voice over Internet Protocol", a study for Ofcom, the UK NRA, at:

With Tseveen Gantumur (2015), Economic Implications of Further Harmonisation of Electronic Communications Regulation in the EU (June 29, 2015), available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2624617.

With Martin Waldburger (2015), Identifying Harm to the Best Efforts Internet (June 29, 2015), available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2624604.

With Frédéric Pujol (2015), “Evolution of GSM-R”, a study on behalf of the European Railway Agency, available at: http://www.era.europa.eu/Document-Register/Pages/Study-for-the-evolution-of-GSM-R-%28by-IDATE-WIK%29.aspx.

With Christin-Isabel Gries and Robert Clarke (2015), Consultation and Report on “International Mobile Roaming (IMR) across the Gulf Corporation Council (GCC) Region” prepared for the Gulf Corporation Council (GCC) Roaming Working Group. Report available at http://www.cra.gov.qa/sites/default/files/Final%20Consultation%20Report%20%20-%20International%20Mobile%20Roaming%20%28IMR%29%2020150621.pdf.

J. Scott Marcus (2014), "Network Neutrality Revisited: Challenges and Responses in the EU and in the US", a study on behalf of the European Parliament's IMCO Committee,
IP/A/IMCO/2014-02, PE 518.751, available at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2014/518751/IPOL_STU%282014%29518751_EN.pdf.

J. Scott Marcus (2014), "The economic impact of Internet traffic growth on network operators", available on SSRN at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2531782.

With Francesco Caio and Gérard Pogorel (the assistance of Vittorio Trecordi and Valerio Zingarelli) (2014), "Achieving the Objectives of the Digital Agenda for Europe (DAE) in Italy: Prospects and Challenges", a study on behalf of Prime Minister Enrico Letta, available at: http://www.governo.it/backoffice/allegati/74621-9208.pdf.

With Dieter Elixmann (2014), “Build it! ... but what if they don't come?” in info, special issue: A digital agenda in search of evidence, Vol. 16 Iss: 1, pp.62 – 75. An earlier working paper is available on SSRN at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2285113.

"Kleinzellen-Architekturen, Off-Loading von Datenverkehr in drahtlose Netze und EMF-Bedenken", Dezember 2013, in EMF-Spectrum, Vol. 4., 3/2013, ISSN 2190-9393, p.31-33.

With Ilsa GODLOVITCH, Pieter NOOREN, Bram VAN DEN ENDE, Jonathan CAVE and Werner NEU: “How to Build a Ubiquitous EU Digital Society”, November 2013, available at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/etudes/join/2013/518736/IPOL-ITRE_ET(2013)518736_EN.pdf.

J. Scott Marcus (2013), “The need for PPDR Broadband Spectrum”, study on behalf of TCCA, October 2013, available at:

With Ilsa Godlovitch, Pieter Nooren, Dieter Eilxmann and Bram van den Ende with the support of Prof Jonathan Cave: "Entertainment x.0 to boost Broadband Deployment", study on behalf of the European Parliament's Committee on Industry, Research and Energy; October 2013, available at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/committees/en/imco/studies.html#menuzone.

With Anne Fleur van Veenstra, Jonathan Cave, Noor Huijboom, Dieter Elixmann, Annette Hillebrand, Rebecca Schindler and Veronica Horvath: “Ubiquitous Developments of the Digital Single Market”, study on behalf of the European Parliament's Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection, October 2013, available at:

With Christin-Isabel Gries, and Imme Philbeck (2013), "Structural Solutions and the Evolution of International Mobile Roaming (IMR) in Europe: Where are We Headed?", available on SSRN at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2342637.

With Burns, J. (2013), Impact of traffic off-loading and related technological trends on the demand for wireless broadband spectrum; study for the European Commission, see http://bookshop.europa.eu/en/study-on-impact-of-traffic-off-loading-and-related-technological-trends-on-the-demand-for-wireless-broadband-spectrum-pbKK0113239/ (no charge)

With Gérard Pogorel and Frédérick Pujol, (ed.): Introduction to “The radio spectrum: A shift in paradigms?”, Communications & Strategies No. 90/2nd quarter 2013.

With Federico Kuhlmann, "Broadband Plans in Latin America: Common Challenges, Diverse Solutions: Comparison of Mexico and Costa Rica" (13 May 2013). Available on SSRN at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2285128.

J. Scott Marcus (2012), “Revising the ITRs: A European policy perspective”, 30 September 2012.

With Dieter Elixmann: "Re-thinking the Digital Agenda for Europe (DAE): A richer choice of technologies", report on behalf of Liberty Global, September 2012, available at:      http://www.cableeurope.eu/uploads/MediaRoom/documents/121022_LGI%20_%20WIK_Re-thinking%20the%20Digital%20Agenda%20for%20Europe.pdf

With John Burns, Frédéric Pujol and Phillipa Marks: “Inventory and review of spectrum use: Assessment of the EU potential for improving spectrum efficiency”, report on behalf of the European Commission, September 2012, available at:    

With Pieter Nooren and Imme Philbeck: “State of the Art - Mobile Internet Connectivity and its Impact on e-Commerce, report for the European Parliament's Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection, July 2012, available at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/committees/de/studiesdownload.html?languageDocument=EN&file=75195

With Imme Philbeck, Jasper Mikkelsen, and Werner Neu, “Trans-Tasman Roaming: Service Costs”, a study for the Australian Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy and the New Zealand Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE), 30 May 2012, available at:

J. Scott Marcus (2012), “Structured Legislation – Toward the Synthesis of Better Law and Regulation of Electronic Communications”. In Legisprudence, international journal for the study of legislation, Vol. 6, No 1, 2012, p 1-33.

Kenneth Carter and J. Scott Marcus (2012), "Improving the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Spectrum Use by the Public Sector: Lessons from Europe", available on SSRN at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1999848.

With Prof. Rekha Jain (2012): “Fast Broadband Deployment in India – What role for cable television?”, presented at ITS Regional Conference in New Delhi, February 2012.

J. Scott Marcus (2011), “Network Operators and Content Providers: Who Bears the Cost?” (September 13, 2011). Available on SSRN:   
 http://ssrn.com/abstract=1926768 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1926768.

With Stephen Adshead, Phillipa Marks, Gilles Fontaine, Kenneth R. Carter, James Kahan and Andra Leurdijk (30 May 2011): “Impact Assessment integrating ex ante evaluation requirements in view of the preparation of a proposal for the next MEDIA Programme after 2013”, Report for the European Commission.

With John Burns, Val Jervis, Reinhard Wählen, Kenneth R. Carter, Imme Philbeck and Prof. Dr. Peter Vary (2010): “PPDR Spectrum Harmonisation in Germany, Europe and Globally”, December 2010, available at:   

With Imme Philbeck (2010), “Study on the Options for addressing Competition Problems in the EU Roaming Market”, SMART 2010/0018, at: http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/newsroom/cf/dae/document.cfm?doc_id=1491.

"The U.S. National Broadband Plan: a European perspective", in Monitoring EU Telecoms Policy, NEREC, October 2010, available at:

With Juan Rendon Schneir, "Drivers and Effects of the Size and Composition of Telecoms Regulatory Agencies", presented at ITS Europe, Copenhagen, September 2010, available at:

"New Directions for U.S. Telecommunications Regulation? The Comcast decision and the 'Third Way'", presented at ITS Europe, Copenhagen, September 2010, available at:

With Christian Growitsch and Christian Wernick, "The Effects of Lower Mobile Termination Rates (MTRs) on Retail Price and Demand", a research project for the German BNetzA, available at: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1586464.

With Dieter Elixmann and Christian Wernick, "Next Generation Networks (NGNs)", a report for the ITRE Committee of the European Parliament, available at:

With Reto Bleisch, "International Experience with Vertical Separation in Telecommunications – The Case of New Zealand", ITS, Bahrain, 2009, available at:

With Ingo Vogelsang, Juan Rendon, Werner Neu, Dieter Elixmann, Francisco Fuentes, Christian Wernick, Thomas Plückebaum, Klaus Hackbarth, "Interconnection in Next Generation Networks (NGNs)", a study for the Peruvian regulator OSIPTEL, August, 2009, available in English and Spanish at:

With John Burns, Phillipa Marks, Frédéric Pujol, and senior expert Prof. Martin Cave, Optimising the Public Sector’s Use of the Radio Spectrum in the European Union.
Executive Summary: http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/policy/ecomm/radio_spectrum/_document_storage/studies/digital_dividend_2009/dd_finalreport_executivesummary.pdf
Report: http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/policy/ecomm/radio_spectrum/_document_storage/studies/pus_2008/pus_study_2008_1_finalreport.pdf
Annex: http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/policy/ecomm/radio_spectrum/_document_storage/studies/pus_2008/pus_study_2008_2_annex.pdf

With Kenneth R. Carter, "Improving the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Spectrum Use by the Public Sector: Lessons from Europe", TPRC, 2009, available at:

With Christian Wernick, "Separation of Telstra: Economic considerations, international experience", WIK, 2June 2009, a study for the Australian Competitive Carriers' Coalition, available at:

http://www.dbcde.gov.au/data/assets/pdf_file/0017/115424/Competitive_Carriers_Coalition_CCC_-WIK_Separation_Report.pdf. See also "Australia: Fibre Build-Out, Regulatory Reform" in WIK Newsletter 75, June 2009, available at: http://www.wik.org/content/newsletter/nr75.pdf.
With Kenneth R. Carter and Christian Wernick, Network Neutrality: Implications for Europe, WIK, January 2009. Available at: http://www.wik.org/.

With Dieter Elixmann, Antonio Portilla Figueras, Klaus Hackbarth, Péter Nagy, Zoltán Pápai, and Mark Scanlan, The Regulation of Next Generation Networks (NGN), 10 May 2007, a study for the Hungarian NHH, available at: http://www.nhh.hu/dokumentum.php?cid=15910.

"IP-Based NGNs and Interconnection: The Debate in Europe", Communications & Strategies, No. 72, p. 17, 4th Quarter 2008, available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1373706.

With Dieter Elixmann, Christian Wernick, and the support of Cullen International, The Regulation of Voice over IP (VoIP) in Europe, a study prepared for the European Commission, 19 March 2008, available at: http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/policy/ecomm/doc/library/ext_studies/voip_f_f_master_19mar08_fin_vers.pdf.

“Vu d’ailleurs : « des réformes indiscutables, mais... »”, in La Lettre de l'Autorité (newsletter of the French ARCEP), Number 60, March-April 2008, at http://www.arcep.fr/uploads/tx_gspublication/lettre60.pdf. Available in English courtesy of the ARCEP as “The European Regulatory Framework: An International Perspective on the Review”, at http://www.mynetcologne.de/%7Enc-marcusjs/ARCEP_Euro_Reg_Framework.pdf.

With Dieter Elixmann, Kenneth R. Carter, and senior experts Scott Bradner, Klaus Hackbarth, Bruno Jullien, Gabriele Kulenkampff, Karl-Heinz Neumann, Antonio Portilla, Patrick Rey, and Ingo Vogelsang, The Future of IP Interconnection: Technical, Economic, and Public Policy Aspects, March 2008, a study prepared for the European Commission, available at: http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/policy/ecomm/doc/library/ext_studies/future_ip_intercon/ip_intercon_study_final.pdf.

With Jonathan Cave, Kenneth R. Carter, Dieter Elixmann, and  Stephen Simmons, Tuning the Innovation System: Final Report (D4) of the Study of the Impacts of IST-RTD on Key Strategic Objectives
Related to Growth and Jobs, a study prepared for the European Commission by RAND Europe and WIK-Consult GmbH, 27 February 2008, available at: http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/information_society/evaluation/data/pdf/studies/s2006_04/final_report.pdf.

"Network Neutrality: The Roots of the Debate in the United States", Intereconomics, Volume 43, Number 1, January 2008. Available at:

With Dieter Elixmann, “Regulatory Approaches to Next Generation Networks (NGNs): An International Comparison”, Communications and Strategies number 69, first quarter 2008, available at:
http://ssrn.com/abstract=1136048. Preliminary versions are available on the web sites of TPRC 2007, and of the Center for Communication Law & Policy (CCLP) at USC, at http://web.si.umich.edu/tprc/papers/2007/800/Regulatory%20Approaches%20to%20NGNs%20v1.2%20FINAL.pdf and http://cclp.usc.edu/assets/docs/RegulatoryApproachestoNGNs_AnInternationalComparison.pdf, respectively.

With Neil Robinson, Joel Reidenberg, Yves Poullet, Adam Peake, Kenneth Carter, , Lisa Klautzer, Chris Marsden, Florence De Villenfagne, Franck Dumortier, Camilla Abder, Cedric Burton, Lisa Cooms, Ezra Kover, Keisuke Kamimura, and Tazuko Tanaka, Comparison of Privacy and Trust Policies in the Area of Electronic Communications, a study prepared for the European Commission, available at: http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/policy/ecomm/doc/library/ext_studies/privacy_trust_policies/final_report_20_07_07_pdf.pdf .

“Interconnection an an IP-based NGN environment”, a chapter in ITU’s Global Trends 2007, presented at the ITU Global Symposium for Regulators, Dubai, 6 Feb 2007, available at: http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/treg/Events/Seminars/GSR/GSR07/discussion_papers/JScott_Marcus_Interconnection_IP-based.pdf.

With Peter Stamm, Kabelinternet in Deutschland (German only), a study of the causes of slow deployment and adoption of broadband Internet access over cable undertaken on behalf of the Deutscher Kabelverband, 24 November 2006, available at: http://www.deutscherkabelverband.de/web/cms/upload/pdf/06-12-14_Studie_Kabelinternet_in_Deutschland.pdf.

With John Burns, Paul Hansen, Michael Marcus, Phillipa Marks, Frédéric Pujol, and Mark Redman, "Study on Legal, Economic, & Technical Aspects of 'Collective Use' of Spectrum in the European Community", a study on behalf of the European Commission, November 2006, available at: http://europa.eu.int/information_society/policy/radio_spectrum/docs/workshop_collective_use/cus_rep_fin.pdf.

“Voice over IP (VoIP) and Access to Emergency Services: A Comparison between the U.S. and the UK”, IEEE Communications Magazine, August 2006, available at http://www.comsoc.org/livepubs/ci1/public/2006/aug/cireg.html.

Beyond Layers”, May 2006, available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=901477.

"WIK Workshop on 'Bill and Keep' Interconnection Arrangements", a summary of WIK's ground-breaking April 2006 workshop, in WIK's newsletter number 63, April 2006, pages 11-15, available in English at: http://www.wik.org/content/newsletter/nr63.pdf. The presentations from the workshop are available at:

"Framework for Interconnection of IP-Based Networks -- Accounting Systems and Interconnection Regimes in the USA and the UK", a background paper prepared for the German Federal Network Agency's study group on a Framework for Interconnection of IP-Based Networks, 27 March 2006, available at:

Interconnection in an NGN Environment”, a background paper commissioned for the ITU New Initiatives Programme workshop on “What rules for IP-enabled Next Generation Networks?” held on 23-24 March 2006 at ITU Headquarters, Geneva. Available at: http://www.itu.int/osg/spu/ngn/documents/Papers/Marcus-060323-Fin-v2.1.pdf. Also available as WIK Discussion Paper 274
(see http://www.wik.org/content_e/diskus/274.htm).

UNREDACTED declaration as an expert witness in Hepting et. al. versus AT&T Corp. ("EFF's Class-Action Lawsuit Against AT&T for Collaboration with Illegal Domestic Spying Program"), available at: http://www.eff.org/files/filenode/att/SER_marcus_decl.pdf.

With Lorenz Nett, Mark Scanlan, Ulrich Stumpf, Martin Cave and Gerard Pogorel, Towards More Flexible Spectrum Regulation, a WIK study for the German BNetzA. Available at: http://www.bundesnetzagentur.de/media/archive/4745.pdf. Also available in German. The ITU published a condensed version under the title Towards More Flexible Spectrum Regulation and its relevance for the German market for their workshop on "The Regulatory Environment for Future Mobile Multimedia Services", Mainz, Germany, June 22-23 2006, available at: http://www.itu.int/osg/spu/ni/multimobile/papers/MMS_flexiblespectrumstudy_060606.pdf.

"Conference Notes: NGN and Emerging Markets - Investment, Infrastructure and Innovation", notes from a BNetzA-sponsored workshop that took place on 5 December 2005 in Königswinter, Germany. Report completed February 2006. Available at: http://www.bundesnetzagentur.de/media/archive/5439.pdf.

“Is the U.S. Dancing to a Different Drummer?”, Communications & Strategies, no. 60, 4th quarter 2005. Available at: http://www.idate.fr/fic/revue_telech/132/CS60%20MARCUS.pdf. Also available in intermedia (the journal of the International Institute of Communications), vol. 34, no.3, July/August 2006.

With Justus Haucap, “Why Regulate? Lessons from New Zealand”, IEEE Communications Magazine, November 2005, available at: http://www.comsoc.org/ci1/Public/2005/nov/ (click on "Regulatory and Policy").

With Douglas C. Sicker, “Layers Revisited”, presented at TPRC, September 2005, available at: http://web.si.umich.edu/tprc/papers/2005/492/Layers%20Revisited%20v0.4.pdf.

Structured Legislation, an exploration of how to construct telecommunications law and regulation more accurately by employing the principles of software engineering. A preliminary version is available at: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1587464.

Broadband Adoption in Europe, IEEE Communications Magazine, April 2005, see:

“The Challenge of Telephone Call Termination Fees”, Enterprise Europe, January 2005. Available at:

“Universal Service in a Changing World”, IEEE Communications Magazine, January 2005, see:

Europe’s New Regulatory Framework for Electronic Communications in Action”, presented at the 4th ZEW Conference on the Economics of Information and Communication Technologies, Mannheim, Germany, July 2004.  Available at: ftp://ftp.zew.de/pub/zew-docs/div/IKT04/Paper_Marcus_Invited.pdf.

“Call Termination Fees:  The U.S. in global perspective”, presented at the 4th ZEW Conference on the Economics of Information and Communication Technologies, Mannheim, Germany, July 2004.  Available at: ftp://ftp.zew.de/pub/zew-docs/div/IKT04/Paper_Marcus_Parallel_Session.pdf.

“Evolving Core Capabilities of the Internet”, Journal on Telecommunications and High Technology Law, 2004, available at:

Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Office of Strategic Planning and Policy Analysis (OSP) Working Paper 36, “The Potential Relevance to the United States of the European Union’s Newly Adopted Regulatory Framework for Telecommunications,” July 2002, available at http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC-224213A2.pdf.  The article and derivative works also appear in: Rethinking Rights and Regulations:  Institutional Responses to New Communications Technologies, Ed. Lorrie Faith Cranor and Steven S. Wildman, MIT Press, 2003; in the Journal on Telecommunications and High Technology Law 111 (2003); and in the 2004 Annual Review of the European Competitive Telecommunications Association (ECTA).

With Jean-Jacques Laffont, Patrick Rey, and Jean Tirole, IDE-I, Toulouse, “Internet interconnection and the off-net-cost pricing principle”, RAND Journal of Economics, Vol. 34, No. 2, Summer 2003, available at http://www.rje.org/abstracts/abstracts/2003/rje.sum03.Laffont.pdf.  An earlier version of the paper appeared as “Internet Peering”, American Economics Review, Volume 91, Number 2, May 2001.

Designing Wide Area Networks and Internetworks: A Practical Guide, Addison Wesley, 1999.

“Internet Hardware and Software”, Proc. IEEE Electro ’96, 1996.

Icaros, Alice, and the OSF DME”, Proc. of ISINM ‘95. An earlier version appeared in Proc. Fifth IFIP International Workshop on Distributed Systems: Operations and Management (DSOM ‘94), October 1994.

 “OSI Network Integration:Seamless, or Seamy?”, Proc. of the International Space Year (ISY) Conference on Earth and Space Science Information Systems (ESSIS), February 1992.

With Lent, R., “An Implementation Architecture for UNIX™ STREAMS-Based Communications Software”, Nixdorf technical report.

“Why an SNA PU 5?”, Nixdorf technical report.

“KNET:A TCP/IP for the IBM/370”, Proc. IEEE Infocom ‘87, March 1987.

With Mower, J., and White, C., “Designing an Ethernet Interface for the System/370”, Proc. IEEE CompCon, September 1982.

With Mower, J., Malnati, P., and White, C., “System/370 Ethernet Interface Architecture”, Spartacus Technical Report 820601, June 1982.

“Performance Analysis of Local Area Networks”, Proc. SHARE 60, 1982.

“Analysis of DASD Performance”, Proc. SHARE 57, 1980.